Tree Fruit Research & Extension

New Insecticides for Apple and Pear IPM

Other Pesticides

Success/Entrust (spinosad)- The active ingredients of Success and its organic formulation Entrust are spinosyns produced through a fermentation process of a microorganism, Actinomycetes spinosa. Spinosyns are active in the nerve synapse, binding at the nicotine receptor site. As with many new insecticides Success has little contact activity and must be ingested before expressing it toxicity. Spinosad is active against many important lepidopteran pests and the potential exists to use this product many times during the growing season. Resistance management must be a concern for maintaining its use for as long as possible. (more...)

Avaunt (indoxacarb) - Avaunt belongs to the oxadiazine class of insecticides. It has a novel mode of action, acting as a voltage dependent sodium channel blocker on the nerve axon. (more...)

Surround (kaolin) - Surround is a particle film technology developed by USDA researchers. The active ingredient is kaolin clay that is specially processed to maximize its pesticidal and horticultural activity. Three years of research on Surround in WA has shown that it has a fit in IPM programs but carries some potential negative impacts on natural enemies. (more...)

Horticultural Mineral Oil- Horticultural mineral oils were among the first insecticides used in orchard pest management. Products have in recent years become more refined and quality controls tightened to reduce the potential for phytotoxicity. Pre-bloom use of oil is an important component of an apple IPM program. This use provides control of San Jose scale and European red mite (eggs) as well as suppression of aphids, all without negative impact on natural enemies. Summer use of horticultural mineral oils has increased as they have become safer. Typical concentrations of oil for summer use are 0.25-1%. Higher concentrations of oil have a greater risk of phytoxicity. There remain questions about the long-term negative impact of summer oil use on fruit tree vigor and fruit size. This is probably more of a concern for pear than apple but careful observation of any decline in tree vigor should be a part of any program using summer oil treatments. Season-long use of oil, especially for codling moth control in organic orchards, has been implicated in increased sunburn, poor fruit finish and poor wax deposition. Care must be exercised when using sulfur in orchards implementing an oil program to prevent phytotoxicity. (more...)

Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) - There are several products that contain the active ingredients produced by the bacteria Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). All Bt products must be consumed to have activity against insects. This is why Bt products do not affect most natural enemies of insect pests. Once consumed, Bt products are activated in the alkaline gut of insects, thus making them very safe to mammals. Bt products have short residual activity and are degraded by sunlight and high temperatures. (more...)

Azadirachtin (neem products) - There are several neem-based insecticides available for tree fruit, and nearly all have azadirachtin as the active ingredient. Azadirachtin is derived from many parts of the Indian neem tree. The insecticidal activity is rather complex; azadirachtin may act as an ovipositional deterrent, feeding deterrent, and insect growth regulator. The IGR activity itself is complex relative to other IGRs, in that azadirachtin interferes with neuroendocrinal control of metamorphosis, affecting both ecdosteroidal and juvenile hormone titers. Neem products in general are very safe to applicators. (more...)

CM granulosis virus- The codling moth granulosis virus has been known for many years and different companies have attempted to formulate it as a biological pesticide. Most formulations have not provided consistent control. The virus is subject to rapid degradation by UV light and high temperatures. The virus has the potential if effective to cause mortality of codling moth larva but this usually does not occur fast enough to prevent its entry into the fruit. Granulosis viruses are species specific, and have been identified for many lepidopteran pests. The advantages of the codling moth granulosis virus is that it only affects codling moth (will not affect any other lepidopteran pests) and thus does not interfere with activities of natural enemies. (more...)

Applaud (buprofezin) - Buprofezin is a unique chemistry, belonging to the thiadiazine class of insecticide. Its mode of action is also unique, in that it can be used as a contact insecticide, stomach poison, or insect growth regulator (chitin synthesis inhibitor). Applaud is likely to only have registration on pear. (more...)

Proclaim (emamectin benzoate)- Proclaim is a similar chemistry as Agri-Mek and even Mesa. The active ingredient in Proclaim is avermectin B1, whereas Agri-Mek is a mixture of avermectin B1a and B1b. Avermectins belong to the glycoside class of insecticides. The mode of action of Proclaim is probably as a chloride channel agonist in GABA mediated neurotransmission. (more...)

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