Exporting Apples & Pears to the People's Republic of China
In past years US apple exports to China have been restricted to ‘Red Delicious’ and ‘Golden Delicious’ exclusively. A couple years back, China reportedly intercepted fruit lots originating from Washington State infected with postharvest decay fungi on their quarantine list. This finding lead to a halt in further exports until the problem could be addressed and a resolution agreed upon. The result was a supplementary agreement document applying to Washington apples to be exported to China. This agreement allowed 2014 crop-year Reds and Goldens to be shipped. The supplemental agreement contained a requirement for specific orchard sanitation practices and field treatments for the targeted postharvest decay organisms combined with fungicidal treatments during storage coupled with fruit sampling. There have been no further reported interceptions since this was enacted.
In the meantime, USDA, Northwest Fruit Exporters (NFE) and the Northwest Horticultural Council (NHC) worked with China to reach a new export agreement to replace the old work plan and supplemental agreement. The new work plan was approved in May 2015 and applies to all US apple varieties, regardless of state of origin, to be implemented beginning with the 2015 apple crop. However, any residual 2014 crop-year apples (Red and Goldens only) must still follow the rules set forth in the 2014 supplemental agreement.
For details about either the 2014 Supplemental Agreement or the new 2015 China work plan and guidelines please contact NFE or USDA. Highlights of the new plan are listed below.
- All varieties are now allowed into the China market.
- New grower compliance affidavit letters must be submitted to the packing facilities. (The 2014 letters won’t work.) See resources below.
- Orchards must be managed for postharvest decay. See resources below.
- Orchards must monitor and treat as needed for codling moth and apple maggot. (Explained in guidelines document.)
- Fruit must be treated at the packing/storage facility for decay.
Cold treatment is no longer required unless used as a treatment for apple maggot or other select pests. (Explained in guidelines document.)
- The 300 fruit sample (treated-cold stored) is no longer required. This has been replaced by a 40 fruit sample taken from packable fruit after sorting and prior to packing. Sampling is performed by trained cull cutters. (The 2014 training doesn’t count.) New training under the new methods is required. See the training calendar for training opportunities.
For information on training click on the "Training Schedule" link to the left or click here.
Resources for China Apple Export
- 2015 Apple Sample and Record Form
- 2015 Grower Compliance Affidavit Letter
Word file printable PDF fillable PDF
- 2015 China work plan and guidelines: Contact NFE or USDA
- 2015 China work plan presentation from exporter workshop: Contact NFE or USDA
- 2014 Crabapple Pruning Guide
- Managing Quarantine-Significant Post Harvest Diseases in PNW Apple & Pear Orchards (pruning video)
- Pruning Manchurian crabapple for disease control (Good Fruit Grower video)
- Bull's Eye Rot (Neofabraea perennans & N. malicoticis) fact sheet and webpage
- Speck Rot (Phacidiopycnis washingtonensis) fact sheet and webpage
- Sphaeropsis Rot (Sphaeropsis pyriputrescens) fact sheet and webpage
- Current list of China Quarantine Pests (The official list could change; contact NFE or USDA for any specific questions.)
- Management reccomendations for Washington can be found in the WSU Crop Protection Guide for Tree Fruit or by using the WSU Decision Aid System.
Management reccomendation for Oregon Tree Fruit can be found in the 2015 Pest Managment Guide for Tree Fruit in the Mid-Columbis Area (PDF).
- Postharvest Disease of Apples & Pears, Dr. Xioa's disease descriptions
The initial market access request was made in 1994. An aggreement for access was finalized in September of 2012 to include fresh pear fruit from the states of California, Oregon, and Washington. Export shipments began in 2103.
Pests of Concern
- Codling moth (Cydia pomonella)
- Mediterranean fruit fly (Cerratitis capitata) - not in PNW region
- Fire blight (Erwinia amylovora)
- Post-harvest decay pathgens:
- Bull's eye rot (Neofabraea malicortis), Side rot (Phialophora malorum), Sphaeropsis rot (Sphaeropsis pyriputrescens), and Phacidiopycnis rot (Potebniamyces pyri)
- Gymnosporangium rusts - not in Washington
- Gymnosporangium clavipes, G. fuscum, and G. globosum
Work Plan Requirements
- Packing, cold storage and cold treatment facilities must be registered through Northwest Fruit Exporters.
- Registration information must include the facility’s name, address, and identification number.
- All orchards must be registered and identified by a grower lot number, with an updated list maintained by the packing facility.
- Pear orchard management requirements are basically the same as for exporting apple orchards.
For detailed work plan information contact Northwest Fruit Exporters, USDA or your state's Department of Agriculture.
Notes Regarding Other Decay Organisms
Listed below are additional decays found in postharvest apples and pears. Although they are not directly considerred quarantine pests, they can cause problems in export shipments. If shipped boxes are found to contain decayed fruit at their destination port the causative organism must be identified. This can lead to the lots being held up. Special care should be taken to ensure clean fruit shipments to prevent hold ups and possible misidentification.
- Gray mold (Botrytis cinerea) description
- Blue mold (Penicillium spp.) description
- Mucor rot (Mucor piriformis) description
Northwest Fruit Exporters
105 South 18th Street,
Suite 227, Yakima, WA 98901
Fred Scarlett, Manging Dir.
Paul McCarthy, Asst. Mgr.
Mike Schell, Acting China & Taiwan Apple Coordinator, PPQ Officer, Wenatchee,
Federal Building, PO Box 3085,
301 Yakima St. Rm. 204A,
Wenatchee, WA 98801
Program Support - Yakima
1710 S 24th Ave.,
Yakima, WA 98902
Jodi Godinez, PPQ Technician
Wendy Alguard, Program Support Assist.
Curt Thornburg, Exp.Cert. Sp..
9118 W Blackeagle Dr.,
Boise, ID 83709
USDA - Oregon
USDA - California
Export Certification Specialists Directory (Too many to list here.)
For other export contacts see
"Export & Quarantine"
View Related Webpages
Download Instructions - Taiwan (PDFs)
2015 Apple Export Workshop handout - all inclusive
Systems Approach Work Plan
Orchard & Field Bin Sampling Instructions
Field Bin Sampling & Cull Fruit Pre-screening - En Español
Download Log Sheets - Taiwan (PDFs)